Diabetes

CV Outcomes in Diabetes

Risk reduction with antihyperglycaemic therapies
 

Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

The opportunity for CV disease prevention in patients with T2D has recently expanded with antihyperglycaemic agents demonstrating significant reductions in the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Although the exact mechanisms of CV benefit remain uncertain, they appear to be unrelated to the direct glucose-lowering effects. These agents have triggered a shift beyond glucose control, to a broader strategy of comprehensive CV risk reduction.

CV specialists are well-positioned to play a key role in managing patients with T2D, including screening, aggressively treating CV risk factors, and incorporating the use of antihyperglycaemic agents into routine practice.

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Section Advisor

Professor Mikhail N Kosiborod

Saint Luke's America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, US

The Radcliffe diabetes and CVD risk program is supported by an educational grant from Novo Nordisk.

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Effect of empagliflozin on left ventricular volumes in patients with type 2 diabetes, or prediabetes, and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (SUGAR-DM-HF)

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The impact of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on natriuretic peptides in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction with and without type 2 diabetes

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Heart failure and renal outcomes according to baseline and achieved blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from EMPA-REG OUTCOME

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Effects of the dual sodium-glucose linked transporter inhibitor, licogliflozin vs placebo or empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure

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Efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition according to left ventricular ejection fraction in DAPA-HF

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Exploring the possible impact of unbalanced open-label drop-in of glucose-lowering medications on EXSCEL outcomes

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A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of metformin on myocardial efficiency in insulin-resistant chronic heart failure patients without diabetes

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The effect of dulaglutide on stroke: an exploratory analysis of the REWIND trial

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Clinical outcomes with canagliflozin according to baseline body mass index: results from post hoc analyses of the CANVAS Program

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Are the cardiovascular and kidney benefits of empagliflozin influenced by baseline glucose-lowering therapy?

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Semaglutide (SUSTAIN and PIONEER) reduces cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes across varying cardiovascular risk

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Twelve-year trends in pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes among patients with heart failure in the United States

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Prediction and validation of exenatide risk marker effects on progression of renal disease: Insights from EXSCEL

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The Association Between Uric Acid Levels and Cardio-renal Outcomes and Death in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Subanalysis of EMPA-REG OUTCOME

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Eligibility of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors among patients with diabetes mellitus admitted for heart failure

Sharma A, Wu J, Ezekowitz JA, et al. ESC Heart Fail 2020;7:275–9.

Microvascular and Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Renal Function in Patients Treated With Once-Weekly Exenatide: Insights From the EXSCEL Trial

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Prescription patterns of diabetes medications influencing clinical outcomes of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

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Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in the Elderly: Analysis From the DECLARE-TIMI 58 Study

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Confirming the Bidirectional Nature of the Association Between Severe Hypoglycemic and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes: Insights From EXSCEL

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Eligibility of patients with type 2 diabetes for sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor cardiovascular outcomes trials: An assessment using the Diabetes Collaborative Registry

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Effect of Canagliflozin on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes across Different Levels of Albuminuria: Data from the CANVAS Program

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Effects of Liraglutide Compared With Placebo on Events of Acute Gallbladder or Biliary Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events in the LEADER Randomized Trial

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Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention Groups

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Relationship between hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes, and empagliflozin treatment in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial

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Oral Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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Glomerular Filtration Rate and Associated Risks of Cardiovascular Events, Mortality, and Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Secondary Analysis (DEVOTE 11)

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Effects of dapagliflozin on development and progression of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the DECLARE-TIMI 58 randomised trial

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Comparative efficacy, safety, and cardiovascular outcomes with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: Insights from the SUSTAIN 1-7 trials

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Effects of dapagliflozin on kidney function, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality according to cause of kidney disease in the DAPA-CKD trial

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Kidney function after initiation and discontinuation of empagliflozin in heart failure patients with and without type 2 diabetes: insights from the Emperial trials

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Navigating through the COVID-19 pandemic and new lessons from cardiovascular outcome trials

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Empagliflozin for chronic heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction in patients with and without diabetes: primary results of the EMPEROR-Reduced trial

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Main results of the empagliflozin evaluation by measuring impact on hemodynamics in patients with heart failure trial

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SGLT2 inhibition for CKD and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: report of a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation

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EMPEROR-Reduced: empagliflozin in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction, with and without diabetes

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DAPA-CKD – dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease

Heerspink H, et al. ESC 2020.

New-onset type 2 diabetes in heart failure: impact of heart failure and death versus ischemic events –a Danish nationwide cohort study

Zareini B, Blanche PB, Holt AH, et al. ESC 2020.

Effects of semaglutide on chronic kidney disease outcomes: a post hoc pooled analysis from the SUSTAIN 6 and PIONEER 6 trials

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Reduction in the rate of EGFR decline with semaglutide vs placebo: a post hoc pooled analysis of SUSTAIN 6 and PIONEER 6

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Impact of N terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide and high sensitivity cardiac troponin on the prediction of death and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes

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Maejima Y. Front Cardiovasc Med 2019;6:186.

Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: implications for managing glycaemic control, cardiovascular and renal risk

Stephens JW, Brown KE, Min T. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22(Suppl 1):32–45.

Computing and interpreting the number needed to treat for cardiovascular outcomes trials: perspective on GLP-1 RA and SGLT-2i therapies

Ludwig L, Darmon P, Guerci B. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020;19:65.

CVOTs: What did the endocrinologist learn?

Valensi P, Prévost G. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020;159:107947.

Best Practices for the Prevention of Radial Artery Occlusion After Transradial Diagnostic Angiography and Intervention: An International Consensus Paper

Bernat I, Aminian A, Pancholy S, et al. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019;12:2235–46.

What have we learned about renal protection from the cardiovascular outcome trials and observational analyses with SGLT2 inhibitors?

Sridhar VS, Rahman HU, Cherney DZI. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22(Suppl 1):55–68.

Cardiovascular outcomes with SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonist in Asians with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials

Singh AK, Singh R. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:715–22.

Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes: Therapeutic Potential of Dapagliflozin

Avgerinos I, Liakos A, Tsapas A, Bekiari E. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2019;12:2549–57.

Sex disparities in cardiovascular outcome trials of populations with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Clemens KK, Woodward M, Neal B, Zinman B. Diabetes Care 2020;43:1157–63.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists cardio-protective effects: an umbrella review

Elnour AA, Al Hajri N, El Khidir IY, et al. Curr Diabetes Rev 2020; epub ahead of press.

The Changing Landscape of Pharmacotherapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Cardiovascular Outcomes

Wu L, Gunton JE. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20:5853.

Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?

Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:e21.

Cardiovascular, mortality, and kidney outcomes with GLP1-RAs in patients with T2D

Kristensen SL, Rørth R, Jhund PS, et al. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019;7:776–85.

How Do SGLT-2 Inhibitors Work to Prevent Heart Failure?

Vaduganathan M, Claggett BL, Solomon SD. JACC Heart Fail 2020;8:67–9.

Cardiovascular outcomes in trials of new antidiabetic drug classes: a network meta-analysis

Fei Y, Tsoi M, Cheung BMY. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019;18:112.

Effect of metformin on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery diseases: a systematic review and an updated meta-analysis

Han Y, Xie H, Liu Y, et al. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019;18:96.

Evidence from routine clinical practice: EMPRISE provides a new perspective on CVOTs

Schernthaner G, Karasik A, Abraitienė A, et al. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019;18:115.

Lessons learned from the DAPA-HF trial concerning the mechanisms of benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors on heart failure events in the context of other large-scale trials nearing completion

Packer M. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019;18:129.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with and without prior cardiovascular events: An updated meta-analysis and subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials

Mannucci E, Dicembrini I, Nreu B, Monami M. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22:203–11.

Neprilysin inhibition: a new therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes?

Esser N, Zraika S. Diabetologia 2019;62:1113–22.

Heterogeneity and Similarities in GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials

Caruso I, Cignarelli A, Giorgino F. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2019;30:578–89.

Using Real-World Data to Predict Findings of an Ongoing Phase IV Cardiovascular Outcome Trial: Cardiovascular Safety of Linagliptin Versus Glimepiride

Patorno E, Schneeweiss S, Gopalakrishnan C, et al. Diabetes Care 2019;42:2204–10.

Cardiovascular Outcome Trials in Type 2 Diabetes: What Do They Mean for Clinical Practice?

Eckel RH, Farooki A, Henry RR, et al. Clin Diabetes 2019;37:316–37.

Reconceptualization of the Molecular Mechanism by Which Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Heart Failure Events

Packer M. Circulation 2019;140:443–5.

GLP-1 receptor agonists for prevention of cardiorenal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: An updated meta-analysis including the REWIND and PIONEER 6 trials

Giugliano D, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab 2019;21:2576–80.

Association of Treatment with Metformin vs Sulfonylurea with Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Among Patients With Diabetes and Reduced Kidney Function

Roumie CL, Chipman J, Min JY, et al. JAMA 2019;322:1167–77.

Sodium–glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments

European Cardiology Review 2019;14(1):23-32

Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Heart Failure Prevention in Type 2 Diabetes

Cardiac Failure Review 2019;5(3):169–72.

Cardiovascular Implications of Sphingomyelin Presence in Biological Membranes

European Cardiology Review 2018;13(1):42–5.

Natriuretic Peptide-based Screening and Prevention of Heart Failure

Cardiac Failure Review 2017;3(2):83–5.

Influence of Race in the Association of Diabetes and Heart Failure

US Cardiology Review 2018;12(1):17–21.

Heart Failure in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Cardiac Failure Review 2017;3(1):52–5.

Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure

European Cardiology Review 2014;9(1):37–42

The Bi-directional Impact of Two Chronic Illnesses: Heart Failure and Diabetes – A review of the Epidemiology and Outcomes

Cardiac Failure Review 2015;1(1):8–10

Effect of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF treated with sacubitril/valsartan: the DAPA-HF trial

Solomon SD, Jhund PS, Claggett BL, et al. JACC Heart Fail 2020; epub ahead of press.

Cardiovascular protection with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: does it apply to all patients?

Giorgino F, Vora J, Fenici P, Solini A. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22:1481–95.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Scheen AJ. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2020;16:556–77.

Which Drug Will "Lead" in Reducing Cardiac Events Among Heart Failure Patients With Diabetes?

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Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Heart Failure Prevention In Type 2 Diabetes

Khan MS, Butler J. Card Fail Rev 2019;5:169–72.

Effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes with or without heart failure

Marso SP, Baeres FMM, Bain SC, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2020;75:1128–41.

Temporal trends in cardiovascular complications in people with or without type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

Davis WA, Gregg EW, Davis TME. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020; epub ahead of press.

Using the BRAVO risk engine to predict cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials with sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors

Shao H, Shi L, Fonseca VA. Diabetes Care 2020; epub ahead of press.

Diabetic agents, from metformin to SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1 receptor agonists: JACC focus seminar

Wilcox T, De Block C, Schwartzbard AZ, Newman JD. J Am Coll Cardiol 2020;75:1956–74.

Effect of treatment with dapagliflozin is consistent across the range of body mass index in patients with HFrEF: an analysis of the DAPA-HF trial

Jhund PS, Adamson C, Inzucchi SE, et al. Poster 1027-03 presented at ACC.20/WCC Virtual, 28 March 2020.

Effects of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes With or Without Heart Failure

Marso SP, Baeres FMM, Bain SC, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2020;75:1128–41.

Mechanisms of Cardiorenal Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: JACC State-of-the-Art Review

Zelniker TA, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2020;75;4:422-434.

CV Outcome Trials in T2D: What Do They Mean for Clinical Practice?

Eckel RH, Farooki A, Henry RR, et al. Clin Diabetes 2019;37:316–37.

GLP-1RA for prevention of CR outcomes in T2D

Giugliano D, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab 2019;21:2576–80.

Cardio-diabetology: The new ‘sweetheart’ in cardiovascular prevention

Aboyans V, Cosentino F. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2019;26(2 Suppl):5–6.

Dapagliflozin in Patients with HF and HFrEF

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Effects of Dapagliflozin on Symptoms, Function, and Quality of Life in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: Results From the DAPA-HF Trial (Late breaking science)

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Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dapagliflozin in patients with short and long-standing type 2 diabetes: Analysis from the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial

Bajaj HS, Raz I, Mosenzon O, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020; epub ahead of press.

Can the Cardiovascular Risk Reductions Observed with Empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial be Explained by Concomitant Changes Seen in Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels?

Coleman RL, Grab AM, Broedl UC, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020; epub ahead of press.

Navigating the "MACE" in Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials and decoding the relevance of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease benefits versus Heart Failure benefits

Hupfeld C, Mudaliar S. Diabetes Obes Metab 2019;21:1780–9.